Module A2: Modern Christian liturgy, worship and pastoral theology (since c.1950)

This module addresses the changes in liturgy since the Second World War, and the influences of pastoral theology. It enables you to study the liturgical renewal and re-formation in the Roman Catholic Church, in the Church of England and the Anglican Communion, and in the Lutheran and Methodist Churches. Other issues are also addressed: the politics of language, the charismatic movement, and the influence of the media.

Learning Outcomes

At the end of the module you will have studied the background of pastoral liturgy and its impact on contemporary liturgy, followed it through in the developments in at least one denomination of the Church, and taken into account other factors influencing contemporary worship.


Suggested initial reading

(all but the first item duplicate the list in module A1)

John Fenwick and Bryan Spinks, Worship in Transition: The Twentieth Century Liturgical Movement, T & T Clark, Edinburgh, 1995

Overview: James F. White, A Brief History of Christian Worship

Theology of liturgy: The Study of Liturgy, Part One

The Mass/Eucharist: J. D. Crichton, A Short History of the Mass

The Office: George Guiver, Company of Voices

As a companion: F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, newly revised edition

For library reference: The New Catholic Encyclopedia (20 volumes)


Study areas

1 The foundations of contemporary liturgy: pastoral theology and its impact on twentieth century liturgy
1.1 The liturgical movement on the Continent or in Australia
1.2 New liturgical thinking in Britain or in Australia
1.3 The influence of the early Church
1.4 Pastoral principles: community, sharing, participation, and the centrality of the Eucharist

Suggested reading for study area 1

The Study of Liturgy, Parts One and Three

Donald Withey, Catholic Worship: An Introduction to Liturgy

John Fenwick and Bryan Spinks, Worship in Transition: The Twentieth Century Liturgical Movement

Michael Perham, Liturgy Pastoral and Parochial

Essay questions related to study area 1:
A2.1.1 Identify the key principles informing contemporary liturgical reform.
A2.1.2 Discuss the impact of pastoral theology on the reform of the contemporary liturgy.

2 The Second Vatican Council and the reformed Roman Catholic liturgy
2.1 The revised order of the Mass
2.2 The revised order of the Office
2.3 The use of the vernacular

Suggested reading for study area 2

The Study of Liturgy, Part Two

Stephen Dean (ed.), Celebration: The Liturgy Handbook

Second Vatican Council, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy

James F. White, Roman Catholic Worship: Trent to Today

Donald A. Withey, Catholic Worship: An Introduction to Liturgy

Essay questions related to study area 2:

A2.2.1 Outline the changes in the ordering of either the Mass or the Office in the re-formed Roman Catholic liturgy, and the theological and liturgical thinking which guided them.
A2.2.2 Consider the impact of the vernacular on the modern Roman Catholic liturgy.

3 The Church of England: from before Alternative Series One to Common Worship
3.1 The revised orders of the Eucharist
3.2 The revised orders of the Office
3.3 Other services

Suggested reading for study area 3

Paul Bradshaw (ed.), A Companion to Common Worship, vol.1 [Alcuin Club Collections 78] (London, SPCK, 2001; Volume 2 forthcoming)

C. D. Jasper, The Development of the Anglican Liturgy 1662-1980, chapters 9-15

C. D. Jasper and Paul F. Bradshaw, A Companion to the Alternative Service Book

Michael Perham, Lively Sacrifice: The Eucharist in the Church of England Today

Essay questions related to study area 3:

A2.3.1 Discuss the main reasons why the liturgy of the Church of England has undergone a succession of revisions in recent times. In what respects is Common Worship a radical revision compared to Alternative Services and The Alternative Service Book 1980?
A2.3.2 Discuss the structure of Common Worship [the main volume] and either Common Worship: Pastoral Services or Common Worship: Initiation Services.
A2.3.3 “Common Worship does not provide any standard uniform books for the worshipper to bring to church on Sunday or to expect to find in the pew. Instead we are offered choice, variety, and flexibility in our services, backed up by all the resources of the computer age.”
“Common Worship offers both traditional and contemporary worship”.
Discuss these two assertions critically, illustrating your arguments with appropriate examples from any of the Common Worship books.

4 New orders in other Churches in the Anglican Communion

This section is intended primarily for those studying outside England. You may concentrate on your own Church, or else consider two or three Churches including the Church of England. Although the general reading will still be relevant, you are advised to take local advice on reading specific to the denomination and its liturgical reforms.

Essay questions related to study area 4:

A2.4.1 Examine the liturgical reforms in any one denomination of the Anglican Communion (apart from the Church of England), considering the guiding principles behind them, and the new liturgical orders which have been introduced.
A2.4.2 Compare the liturgical reforms of any two or three Churches in the Anglican Communion. What do they share in common, and what is distinct? (You may include the Church of England in this question if you wish.)

5 Liturgy and theology in other Protestant denominations

5.1 The new Lutheran orders of worship
5.2 The Methodist orders of worship

This section is intended primarily for those who work in other Protestant denominations with new service books. As in study area 4, the general reading will still be relevant, but you are advised to take local advice on reading specific to the denomination and its liturgical reforms.

Suggested reading for study area 5

Luther D. Reed, The Lutheran Liturgy

Frank Senn (ed.), Protestant Spiritual Traditions

James F. White, Protestant Worship: Traditions in Transition

Essay questions related to study area 5:

A2.5.1 Examine the liturgical reforms in the Lutheran or Methodist Churches, considering the guiding principles behind them, and the new liturgical orders which have been introduced.
A2.5.2 Compare the liturgical reforms of any two or three Protestant Churches. What do they share in common, and what is distinct. (You may include the Anglican Communion in this question if you wish.)

6 Contemporary issues and future liturgical developments

6.1 Language, gender and inclusivity
6.2 The influence of the secular: media values and methods
6.3 The impact of charismatic spirituality
6.4 Taizé: its ethos, practice and influence
6.5 Current trends and future developments

Suggested reading for study area 6

John Fenwick and Bryan Spinks, Worship in transition, chapters 14, 15, 19

Language and the Worship of the Church (London, General Synod of the Church of England, 1994)

Michael Perham (ed.), Towards Liturgy 2000: Preparing for the Revision of the Alternative Service Book

Michael Perham, Liturgy for a New Century: Further Essays in Preparation for the Revision of the Alternative Service Book

Michael Perham, Liturgy Pastoral and Parochial, chapters 1, 2, 7

Donald Withey, Catholic Worship: An Introduction to the Liturgy, chapters 16, 17, 18, 20

Specific issues books: some additional possible suggestions

Christopher Arthur, Religion and the Media: an Introductory Reader

David Crystal, Linguistics, language and religion

Alvin Kimel, Speaking the Christian God: the Holy Trinity and the Challenge of Feminism

Kilian McDonnell, Charismatic Renewal and the Churches

Brian Wren, What language shall I borrow?

Rex Brico, Taizé: Brother Roger and his Community

Jose Luis Gonzalez-Balado, The Story of Taizé

Tim Haggis, The Spirituality of Taizé

Praise in all our days: Common Prayer at Taizé

Eucharistic Liturgy at Taizé

Brother Roger, Parable of Community: The Rule and other Basic Texts of Taizé

Essay questions related to study area 6:

A2.6.1 Consider the impact of one of the following on contemporary liturgy: (a) language, gender and inclusivity; (b) media values and methods; (c) charismatic spirituality.
A2.6.2 In what ways has the ethos and liturgical practice of Taizé influenced the wider Church? Can you account for this influence?
A2.6.3 Present an overview of current trends and possible future developments in the liturgy.


Study

You must study at least four of the areas listed above, including 1.

Although you may choose (or be directed by a supervisor in) your own pattern of study it must include those issues listed in the study areas above, and you are advised to take account of the recommended items listed.

In undertaking the writing of essays you are advised to consult the guidance for presentation of written work in the general study notes.


Assessment and satisfactory completion

At the end of the module you must submit two essays, each of 3,750-4,000 words, for assessment. The subjects of the essays must be selected from the topics set above. Each essay must relate to a different study area. A bibliography of materials consulted should be appended to the essay.

The assessment of the module will be based on the two essays, but you must establish that you have satisfactorily completed study of all four areas. You should complete a module log listing materials used for the study, time spent in study, and noting any special factors or difficulties encountered. You may also be required to provide additional evidence of study undertaken in the two areas not covered by the two assessed essays. In each case this may consist either of notes made during study or an essay on a topic related to the area. The examiners will request these materials if they require them.

Two copies of all materials for assessment and establishment of satisfactory completion should be forwarded to the Course Secretary and postmarked not later than 31 January or 30 June in the appropriate study period.


Bibliography: Module A2

Basic background reading

John R. K. Fenwick and Bryan D. Spinks, Worship in Transition: The Twentieth Century Liturgical Movement (Edinburgh, T & T Clark, 1995)

D. Crichton, A Short History of the Mass (London, Catholic Truth Society, 1983)

George Guiver, Company of Voices: Daily Prayer and the People of God (London, SPCK, 1988; 2nd. ed. Norwich, Canterbury Press, 2001)

Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright, Edward Yarnold and Paul Bradshaw (eds.), The Study of Liturgy (London, SPCK, 1978; rev. ed. 1992)

James F. White, A Brief History of Christian Worship (Nashville, Abingdon Press, 1993)

Other books included in suggested and additional reading

Paul Bradshaw (ed.), Companion to Common Worship, vol.1 (London, SPCK, 2001)

Geoffrey Cuming, A History of Anglican Liturgy (London, Macmillan, 1969; 2nd ed. 1982)

Stephen Dean (ed.), Celebration: The Liturgy Handbook (London, Geoffrey Chapman, 1993)

C. D. Jasper, The Development of the Anglican Liturgy, 1662-1980 (London, SPCK, 1989)

C. D. Jasper and Paul F. Bradshaw, A Companion to the Alternative Service Book (London, SPCK, 1986)

Language and the Worship of the Church (London, General Synod of the Church of England, 1994)

Kilian McDonnell, Charismatic Renewal and the Churches (New York, Seabury Press, [c.1976])

Michael Perham, Liturgy Pastoral and Parochial (London, SPCK, 1984)

Michael Perham, Lively Sacrifice: The Eucharist in the Church of England Today (London, SPCK, 1992)

Michael Perham (ed.), Towards Liturgy 2000: Preparing for the Revision of the Alternative Service Book (London, SPCK for The Alcuin Club, 1989)

Michael Perham (ed.), Liturgy for a New Century: Further Essays in Preparation for the Revision of the Alternative Service Book (London, SPCK for The Alcuin Club, 1991)

Luther D. Reed, The Lutheran Liturgy (Philadelphia, Muhlenberg Press, 1947; rev. ed. Philadelphia, Fortress Press, 1960)

Second Vatican Council, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy

Frank C. Senn (ed.), Protestant Spiritual Traditions (New York, Paulist Press, 1986)

Donald A. Withey, Catholic Worship: An Introduction to Liturgy (Bury St. Edmunds, Kevin Mayhew, 1990)

James F. White, Protestant Worship: Traditions in Transition (Westminster, John Knox Press, (c.1989))

James F. White, Roman Catholic Worship: Trent to Today (Paulist Press, New York, 1995)

Other suggestions

Chris Arthur, Religion and the Media: an Introductory Reader (Cardiff, University of Wales Press, 1993)

David Crystal, Linguistics, language and religion (London, Burns & Oates, 1965)

Alvin F. Kimel Jr. (ed.), Speaking the Christian God: the Holy Trinity and the Challenge of Feminism (Grand Rapids, Michigan, W. B. Eerdmans, 1992)

Brian A. Wren, What language shall I borrow? God-talk in worship: a male response to feminist theology (London, SCM Press, 1989)

Taizé

Rex Brico, Taizé: Brother Roger and his Community (London, Collins, 1978)

Eucharistic Liturgy at Taizé (Taizé, Les Presses de Taizé, 1962)

Jose Luis Gonzalez-Balado, The Story of Taizé (London, Mowbray, 1980; 3rd ed. 1988)

Tim Haggis, The Spirituality of Taizé (Nottingham, Grove Books, 1994)

Taizé Community, Praise in all our days: Common Prayer at Taizé (Leighton Buzzard, Faith Press, 1975; London, Mowbray, 1981)

Brother Roger of Taizé, Parable of Community: The Rule and other Basic Texts of Taizé (London, Mowbray, 1980; New York, Seabury Press, 1981)

Other books

Annibale Bugnini (transl. Matthew J. O'Connell), The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-1975 (Collegeville, Minnesota, Liturgical Press, [c.1990])

D. Crichton, Christian Celebration, three volumes - Understanding the Mass, Understanding the Sacraments, Understanding the Prayer of the Church (London, Geoffrey Chapman, 1981; new. ed. 1993; available both in separate volumes and also in a single volume containing the three parts)

Josef A. Jungmann, Pastoral Liturgy (London, [Challoner], 1962)