How to set out bibliographical details

Your assignment essays, like your extended essays, should be accompanied by a list of books and music/music editions which you have used while preparing your work. Booklists should generally contain the following information, in the order shown: name of author(s) or editor(s); title (followed by series title if applicable; sometimes by the name of a later editor); publisher – and/or place of publication; and date of publication. Thus, for example:

Dearnley, Christopher, English Church Music 1660-1750 (London, 1970)

Funk, Virgil, and Huck, Gabe, Pastoral Music in Practice (The Pastoral Press NAPM, 1981)

le Huray, Peter, Music and the Reformation in England (London, 1967)

Articles which form part of a book, journal or magazine should be listed by author; article title (not italicised or underlined but shown within single quotation marks); then either (if a book) the information listed above, and in that same order or (if published in a journal) the journal title (italicised or underlined); journal number (with year(s) of publication in brackets); and page numbers where the article appears (alternatively the number of the page upon which the article begins).

The following examples should clarify this:

Aston, Peter, ‘Music since the Reformation’, in GE Aylmer and Reginald Cant (eds), A History of York Minster (Oxford, 1977), 395-429

Aston, Peter, ‘George Jeffreys’, Musical Times, 110 (1969), 772-776

Textual references may be shown, firstly by a superscript number (observing numerical order throughout the essay) then, in a footnote, by the following information: author’s surname, either year of publication of book or article or an abbreviated title, page number(s). Examples are shown here, based on items shown earlier on this page:

Dearnley (1970), (page) 10

le Huray, Music and the Reformation, 36-39

Aston, ‘George Jeffreys’, 774

In all cases it is assumed that full publication details will be listed in the bibliography.

Lists of published music should observe broadly similar principles. The name of the composer of a piece should be followed by its title (italicised or underlined). Information about publisher (and, in some cases, editor), while not obligatory, is still useful. Collections (of, say, anthems or motets) from which an item is taken should certainly be listed.


In handwritten lists, items (such as titles) which might otherwise be italicised should be underlined.